Hafas Furqani from Indonesia spoke on the issue of distribution in economics. There is a concern among scholars on how justice can be achieved in distribution. Various theories have been proposed to answer that problem, such as strict egalitarianism, the difference principles of John Rawls, resources-based principles, welfare-based principles ala utilitarianism, desert-based principles, and libertarian principles. The theories differ in the object of distribution, goals of distribution and the basis of a just distribution. According to Hafas, the Qur’an has outlined several guiding principles on distribution such as the principle of kasb (whereby individuals must put their effort to attain his livelihood and the effort is the basis for a just reward), rizq (Allah has allocated provision to individuals upon His discretion and hence inequality will exist in society as part of test in human life), amānah (all wealth essentially belongs to Allah SWT and individuals hold it as a trust which requires responsibility and accountability), huquq (there are rights of others in personal wealth that should be delivered obligatorily and voluntarily), infāq (spending wealth in the way of Allah, fi sabilillah, which also means spending for personal and social wellbeing is the only options in Islamic concept of distribution), and ‘adalah (establishing justice in distribution at personal and social level is the aim of Islamic distribution). These principles set the foundations for distributive justice framework and direction of Islamic distribution scheme towards an establishment of a just and equitable society.

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